Loew removes the amulet and is called down by his assistant to join in the celebrations in the street; as the community rejoices, the assistant goes to inform Miriam and bring her to the synagogue but finds her in bed with Florian. Devastated, he reanimates the Golem and orders, but the Golem, now under Astaroth's influence does so by throwing Florian from the roof of the house, killing him.
Horrified, the assistant and Miriam flee, but the Golem sets fire to the building and Miriam falls unconscious. Loew's assistant rushes to the synagogue to alert the praying Jews of the disaster, but upon their arrival at Loew's house they find that it is burning and both the Golem and Miriam are missing. Despaired, the community begs Loew to save them from the rampaging Golem. Loew performs a spell. Promptly, the Golem, wandering the ghetto causing destruction, leaves Miriam, whom he has been dragging by the hair through the streets, lying on a stone surface and heads towards the ghetto gate.
He sees a group of girls playing. They all flee except for one, whom he picks up, having developed a docile nature following the removal of Astaroth. Out of curiosity she removes the amulet from the Golem, it collapses. Loew meanwhile finds Miriam. Reunited, they are awkwardly joined by Loew's assistant, who informs him that the Jews are waiting for him by the gate. Loew having left, the assistant promises to Miriam that he will never tell anyone of her forbidden affair with Florian, asks in return for forgiveness for his actions; the Jews meanwhile gather at the gate to find the dead Golem.
Rejoicing and praying, they carry it back into the ghetto, the Star of David appearing on the screen as the film ends. It was badly damaged in a bombing raid in ; the present building, which consists of a church with an attached foyer and a separate belfry with an attached chapel, was built between and The damaged spire of the old church has been retained and its ground floor has been made into a memorial hall; the Memorial Church today is a famous landmark of western Berlin, is nicknamed by Berliners "der hohle Zahn", meaning "the hollow tooth". The construction of the church was part of a Protestant church-building programme initiated by Kaiser Wilhelm II and his consort Augusta Victoria to counter the German labour movement and socialist movement by a return to traditional religious values.
The competition for the design was won by Franz Schwechten , member of the Bauakademie who had distinguished himself with the design of the Anhalter Bahnhof. Schwechten, a native Rhinelander , planned for a large church to be built in a Neo-Romanesque style modelled on the Bonn Minster with a Tuff stone facade, his design included 2, square metres of wall mosaic , a metres -high spire and a nave which seated over 2, people. The foundation stone was laid on 22 March , Wilhelm I's birthday; the church was dedicated on the eve of Day of Sedan.
At that time, the entrance hall in the lower section had not yet been completed. Construction costs mounted to 6. In World War II , on the night of 23 November , the church was extensively damaged in an air raid. Yet it was by no means beyond repair. A remnant of the spire and much of the entrance hall survived intact, as did the altar and the baptistry. In a two-phased design competition in , the question of whether the secured remnant of the spire should be torn down or preserved was left open; the winner of the competition, architect Egon Eiermann proposed, in both his submissions, for the remnant of the old spire to be torn down, in favor of a new construction.
But that plan provoked a public outcry in which the ruined tower was characterized as the "heart of Berlin", he had most of the remaining structure pulled down, in order to build the modern church that now occupies most of the site. The new church was designed by Eiermann and consists of four buildings grouped around the remaining ruins of the old church. The initial design included the demolition of the spire of the old church but following pressure from the public, it was decided to incorporate it into the new design.
The Red Countess
The four buildings comprise, on the west of the ruins, the new church with a foyer to its west, to the east of the ruins, a tower with a chapel to its northeast; the plan of the church is octagonal. These components are sited on a plateau measuring metres long and 40 metres wide; the new buildings are constructed of concrete and glass. The walls of the church are made of a concrete honeycomb containing 21, stained glass inlays; the glass, designed by Gabriel Loire , was inspired by the colours of the glass in Chartres Cathedral. The predominant colour is blue, with small areas of ruby red, emerald yellow; the church is 35 metres in diameter and Because of the distinctive appearance of the new buildings, it is sometimes nicknamed "Lippenstift und Puderdose" by Berliners.
Inside the church, opposite the entrance, is a figure of the Crucifix , suspended above the altar. This was designed by Karl Hemmeter. The cross on the altar, by Peter Tauchnitz , is of gilt silver with 37 rock crystals. To the left of the altar is the baptismal font on a stand filled with Carrara marble which contains a majolica bowl for the holy water. To the right of the altar is an octagonal pulpit. Opposite the altar on a gallery is an organ containing about 5, pipes, built by Schuke.
Plexiglas panels have been installed over the organ gallery to improve the acoustics. By the northeast wall of the church are three works of art; the first is a bronze plaque commemorating the Protestant martyrs who died during the Nazi regime between and It incorporates a Spanish wooden crucifix dating from the 13th century; the plaque was placed in the church on 20 July , the 20th anniversary of an attempt to assassinate Hitler.
Next to this is the Stalingrad Madonna , a symbol of hope and reconciliation; this is a charcoal drawing made by Kurt Reuber during the time he was trapped inside Stalingrad at Christmas The third item of art. British bombers dropped 45, tons of bombs; as the bombings continued more and more people moved out.
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By May , 1. Roosevelt , issued a request to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets; the French and the British agreed to abide by the request, with the provision that this was "upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all of their opponents".
The United Kingdom had a policy of using aerial bombing only against military targets and against infrastructure such as ports and railways of direct military importance. While it was acknowledged that the aerial bombing of Germany would cause civilian casualties, the British government renounced the deliberate bombing of civilian property, outside combat zones, as a military tactic.
This policy was abandoned on 15 May , two days after the German air attack on Rotterdam , when the RAF was given permission to attack targets in the Ruhr , including oil plants and other civilian industrial targets that aided the German war effort, such as blast furnaces that at night were self illuminating; the first RAF raid on the interior of Germany took place on the night of 10 — 11 May.
The Jules Verne , a variant of the Farman F. Between and , the policy of bombing only targets of direct military significance was abandoned in favour of "area bombing" — large-scale bombing of German cities to destroy housing and civilian infrastructure. Although killing German civilians was never an explicit policy, it was obvious that area bombing must lead to large-scale civilian casualties. Following the fall of France in , Britain had no other means of carrying the war to Germany on the European continent and after the entry of the Soviet Union into the war in , bombing Germany was the only contribution Britain was prepared to make to meet Stalin's demands for action to open up a second European front.
With the technology available at the time, the precision bombing of military targets was possible only by daylight. Daylight bombing raids conducted by Bomber Command involved unacceptably high losses of British aircraft, bombing by night led to far lower British losses, but was of necessity indiscriminate due to the difficulties of nocturnal navigation and bomb aiming.
Before , Berlin, at kilometres from London , was at the extreme range attainable by the British bombers available to the Allied forces, it could be bombed only at night in summer when the days were longer and skies clear—which increased the risk to Allied bombers. The bombing raids on Berlin prompted Hitler to order the shift of the Luftwaffe's target from British airfields and air defenses to British cities, at a time during the Battle of Britain when the British air defenses were becoming exhausted and overstretched.
In the following two weeks there were a further five raids of a similar size, all nominally precision raids at specific targets, but with the difficulties of navigating at night the bombs that were dropped were dispersed. During there were more raids on Berlin ; the raids were ineffective in hitting important targets. The head of the Air Staff of the RAF, Sir Charles Portal , justified these raids by saying that to "get four million people out of bed and into the shelters" was worth the losses involved; the Soviet Union started a bombing campaign on Berlin on 8 August that extended into early September.
Navy bombers, operating from the Moonzund Archipelago conducted 8 raids to Berlin with aircraft in each raid. Army bombers, operating from near Leningrad , executed several small raids to Berlin. In total in , 33 Soviet aircraft dropped 36, kilograms of bombs on Berlin. Combat and operational losses for the Soviets tallied 70 crewmen killed. This failure led to the dismissal of Peirse and his replacement by Sir Arthur Travers Harris , who believed in both the efficacy and necessity of area bombing.
Harris said: "The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, nobody was going to bomb them. His urbane comedies of manners gave him the reputation of being Hollywood's most elegant and sophisticated director. In , he received an Honorary Academy Award for his distinguished contributions to the art of the motion picture. He turned his back on his father's tailoring business to enter the theater, by , he was a member of Max Reinhardt's Deutsches Theater.
In , Lubitsch made his film debut as an actor in The Ideal Wife, he abandoned acting to concentrate on directing. He appeared in thirty films as an actor between and , his last film appearance as an actor was in the drama Sumurun , opposite Pola Negri and Paul Wegener , which he directed. In , he made his mark as a serious director with Die Augen der Mumie Ma. Lubitsch alternated between escapist comedies and large-scale historical dramas, enjoying great international success with both, his reputation as a grand master of world cinema reached a new peak after the release of his spectacles Madame Du Barry and Anna Boleyn.
Both of these films found American distributorship by early They, along with Lubitsch's Carmen were selected by The New York Times on its list of the 15 most important movies of With glowing reviews under his belt, American money flowing his way, Lubitsch formed his own production company and set to work on the high-budget spectacular The Loves of Pharaoh. Lubitsch sailed to the United States for the first time in December for what was intended as a lengthy publicity and professional factfinding tour, scheduled to culminate in the February premiere of Pharaoh.
However, with World War I still fresh, with a slew of German " New Wave " releases encroaching on American movie workers' livelihoods, Lubitsch was not gladly received.
The Red Countess
He cut his trip short after little more than three weeks and returned to Germany. But he had seen enough of the American film industry to know that its resources far outstripped the spartan German companies. Lubitsch left Germany for Hollywood in , contracted as a director by Mary Pickford , he directed Pickford in the film Rosita.
A free agent after just one American film, Lubitsch was signed to a remarkable three-year, six-picture contract by Warner Brothers that guaranteed the director his choice of both cast and crew, full editing control over the final cut. Settling in America, Lubitsch established his reputation for sophisticated comedy with such stylish films as The Marriage Circle , Lady Windermere's Fan , So This Is Paris , but his films were only marginally profitable for Warner Brothers, Lubitsch's contract was dissolved by mutual consent, with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount buying out the remainder.
Lubitsch seized upon the advent of talkies to direct musicals. With his first sound film, The Love Parade , starring Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald , Lubitsch hit his stride as a maker of worldly musical comedies; the Love Parade , Monte Carlo , The Smiling Lieutenant were hailed by critics as masterpieces of the newly emerging musical genre. Lubitsch served on the faculty of the University of Southern California for a time, his next film was a romantic comedy, written with Trouble in Paradise. Described as "truly amoral " by critic David Thomson , the cynical comedy was popular both with critics and with audiences, but it was a project that could only have been made before the enforcement of the Production Code , after , Trouble in Paradise was withdrawn from circulation.
It was not seen again until ; the film was never available on videocassette and only became available on DVD in The theme of transformation, and its symphonic opening in N. The transformation that is addressed there is of an entirely different kind from the pillar of salt and dissolution into feeling kind previously indicated, though related I would say to the latter of the two, the rediscovery of love This transformation concerns, and it is yet another multiple link, the opening sentence of A Slow Homecoming [Sorger had already survived several people to whom he had come close, but felt no further longing, except for those frequent bouts of a kind of selfless joy in existence with an almost animalistic craving for salvation pressing down on his eyelids.
FN], which opening, so Handke to Gamper, he had carried around with him for years, but which, when it came to writing that novel in the Hotel Adams at the corner of 86th Street and Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, became such a stumbling block that it nearly killed the entire project. Those nameless first two sections of A. H, that are the result of this different approach [and which once upon a time made me conclude that if nature were to disappear at least it would continue to vibrate in those pages, they are that deeply evocative and seismographically tuned-FN] in Nomansbay have for their stead the gradual discovery of the archaic wilderness [which Sorger claimed to have sensed even among the New Yorkers of the Upper East Side] in the No-Man s-Bay and on the various friends various expeditions.
At any event, going outside the confines of the book, into the wide field of the biography of all the Keuschnigs, it is possible to relate this particular metamorphosis intra-psychically to the epiphany that pulled the mids Keuschnig of A. No doubt a half-way imaginative reader, BUT who has not delved into every available Handke nook and cranny, might infer that there exists a relationship between this third metamorphosis and the kind of description and evocation of nature as it can be found in so much of No-Man s-Bay.
The various components of the Nomansbay that had been introduced in Part I join together at in Part III and are given a passionate full throttle treatment in this My Year In the Nomansbay section which to my mind is the finest, most extensive and intense exploration of a territory that Handke [each of whose books since the mid-seventies have been intensely visually tied to the locality where they were written [FN], has accomplished to that date: and it is to this Thoreau-like aspect of the book that William Gass responded so well in the one just review that Nomansbay received in the United States on publication in English [FN], an aspect, it is the author himself, certainly no ordinary copy writer so runs my hunch, summarized in the German jacket copy: A wooded region near a city.
Living there for ten years. Then the one year.
Seven distant friends. A wife disparu. Who not? Where not? The railway station plaza with the tree where the birds sleep. The railway station pub. The Seasons. The mushrooms. The migrant workers. The neighbors. The crickets. Wars, a volcanic eruption, hot springs. A minor prophet. The child called Vladimir. The fable of the noisy neighbor whom the natives stone to death. The blue Russian orthodox chapel at the forest edge. And the reunion with the seven friends one frosty winter night just before New Years.
In the book each of these chiffres effloresces like the seeds of a pine cone after being woken by a poet. With plentiful thank you to a fine assortment of pencil stubs. The variously prepared sections portraying the trips of the Seven Friends of course are not simply presented like a handful of picture postcards from my trips around the world, or those interchangeable articles from the New York Sunday Times Travel Section, but are variations on ways of presenting, as each way of narrating varies from the other, and different response to the interiorization of experience, are connected with each other however exclusively via their friend Keuschnig [unless I am very much mistaken not even the Yugoslav space cadet girlfriends knows the son!
IV The friend to whom the first section is devoted, however, is the one for whom we have been least prepared! If one wanted to see them as a septych, they would be saints with their faces rubbed out, reiterating Handke s taboo on the representation of faces. However, a reader of Nomansbay will come to life at the description of The Priest because he is more than just one side of Pete Keuschnig, although he has only a few scenes in the book, he has the feel of a real friend who can take Keuschnig by the scruff of the neck, ornery, hands-on, and might not be unfamiliar in Anglo-American environs if he were Irish and not Carinthian.
But like their author Peter Handke and like his stand-ins the various Keuschnig s, these seven friends, save for The Priest mostly all walk solo and are not seen congregating. All this out of the near ex-nihilo of a single narrator splitting and iterating a theme twice! The Singer is the most straightforward of the lot.
The Reader and the places his visits in the Bay of Jades in the North-German Wilhelsmhaven enjoys a more complicated relationship with the narrator since he visits the same pond where the narrator had thought of drowning his father [Handke s patricidal impulses are alive and well, as are, prognosticatingly his own invented son s. Another of his ways of tying the fabric closely is for Keuschnig to indicate, that like his carpenter architect friend, he too, has been to Japan.
The painter filmmaker runs closer to the bone of Peter Handke; he is the one who is introduced already in Keuschnig s Paris past. The biggest surprise to me was the fairly hilarious absentee Yugoslav girlfriend, an ex Miss Yugoslavia with a host of marriages, one to a Yugoslav basketball star and business ventures in her past who services Handke nicely as she works her way down the Dalmatian coast into Turkey, and if I recall precisely is last seen moving up the Nile.
Ten years Keuschnig claims in Nomansbook has he been living there whereas Handke, after leaving Salzburg and his trip round the world, by , had been living there for six years. The civil wars, then raging in the former Yugoslavia, are transposed, futuristically, to a far-off Germany, North versus South, smokers versus alcohol-consumers, transposing the missing four years into the future; My Year in the Nomansbay is the title of the last section and the refugio receives the full throttle treatment.
Nomansbay, therefore provides Handke with the opportunity to demonstrate his own artistic development first of all in the act itself, but also through the lives and actions and thoughts of some of the artistic of his seven friends. To underlings working at British International Pictures in the late s, the years of his pomp, E.
Dupont became notorious for his lordly caprice, fussing endlessly over the minutiae of lighting, or leaving the technical staff twiddling for hours while the great director waited for inspiration to strike. The situation changed significantly with his association with the leading actress and producer Henny Porten. Die Geier-Wally , first of several film adaptations of a popular Heimat novel, appeared in Baruch himself, as an orthodox Jew, is a man divided, always on the fringe of glittering Viennese society.
But we can see the Dupont style beginning to grip in the careful image compositions, the concern for the emotional significance of texture, light, and shadow. Cinema and life for him would never be the same again. Hired by the production company Stern-Film, in he began directing his scripts for their detective series starring Max Landa he made twelve entries in two years. Only B-movies like The Neanderthal Man followed. Rags and silk; the poor and the rich. The two worlds collide when Erik Johannes Riemann , the bored husband in a Grunewald mansion, decides to add spice to his life by inviting a Wedding factory girl, Hilde Mary Kid , to take up residence.
Best remembered now for Es werde Licht! But despite the blunt opposites in its title, and its sharp eye for human behaviour, Lumpen und Seide features no shrill exploitation of the social divide. Rags and silk rub against each other lightly in a film devised solely for the pleasure of the mass-market audience. But remember: trivial pictures can convey a good deal, especially after 82 years.
Moving to Berlin, he started writing screenplays for Deutsche Vitascope in , and made his directorial debut the same year with the war drama Das eiserne Kreuz , which came into conflict with the censors.
German Music Database: Artist and Song List
Es werde Licht! In the early s Oswald filmed ambitious historical epics Lady Hamilton , ; Lucrezia Borgia , But the collapse of his production company in enforced a concentration on cheaper popular fare — useful programming fodder for the cinema he ran in Berlin. He returned to history for the lavishly-appointed Cagliostro , filmed in France.
They were styled Kulturfilme , and became major moneymakers for the Ufa conglomerate. Further changes, to fit national preferences and needs, were made when the film was released abroad. Made with the financial support of the German government, this film circulated in the schools because of what was considered its educational value.
As a matter of fact, the film simply promoted calisthenics and sport. This was done in an omnivorous manner: not content with recording actual achievements in the fields of athletics, hygienic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, dancing, and so forth, Ufa resurrected the Roman thermae and an antique Greek gymnasium crowded with adolescents posing as the contemporaries of Pericles. The masquerade was easy inasmuch as many of the athletes performed stark naked.
Of course, this sight offended the prudish, but Ufa held that perfect bodily beauty was bound to evoke joys of a purely aesthetic order, and found its idealism rewarded by good box-office takes. Aesthetically speaking, the reconstructions of antiquity were tasteless, the sport pictures excellent, and the bodily beauties so massed together that they affected one neither sensually nor aesthetically. His three fairytale films of , Der kleine Muck , Tischlein deck dich Financial problems intervened, and he abandoned filmmaking. Adapted from CineGraph.
Alexanderplatz, Berlin; lg. To find a German film of the mids called Der Farmer aus Texas should be no surprise. America, one way or another, occupied many minds. The mighty conglomerate Ufa risked inflating production costs by purposefully increasing spectacle levels to attract the American box-office.
Outside the cinemas, in theatres and hotels American jazz and dance music intoxicated the crowds; while to leftist writers like Brecht, America served as both awful warning and fatal attraction. The title, the subject, the studio artifice, the picturesque exteriors, the roster of American and English players, all point to hopes for an international hit.
What pleased German theatre audiences so much found less success in the cinemas: indeed, in the heavy production costs of Der Farmer aus Texas helped pitch Ufa closer towards bankruptcy. But there should be no clouds for us now.
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Simultaneously he gave chances to up-and-coming talent like Fritz Lang and E. Five years later, with backing from friends, Joe and Mia May opened a Viennese restaurant in Los Angeles; it closed down after a few weeks. Concerned about their honour, his family bans him to New York, where he falls on hard times until a former circus performer helps him to become a world-renowned trapeze and aerial artiste. Before he is reunited with the girl he loves, he has to survive an act of sabotage by a jealous lover. For Steinhoff it was a routine assignment he carried out with the professionalism characteristic of his work.
Steinhoff grew up in Leipzig. He joined a local theatre company at Varied experiences followed: he played opposite the author Frank Wedekind in the first production of Lulu Steinhoff was Alwa, Wedekind Dr. With the decline of traditional variety theatres after World War I, Steinhoff founded his own film company in For the Gloria company in Berlin he made the historical epic Der Falsche Dimitry The False Dimitri, , and built a reputation as an efficient and versatile director for the mass market.
His ability to work within modest budgets made him especially popular with smaller companies. In , contracted to a B-movie production unit at Ufa, Steinhoff made Hitlerjunge Quex , which established his reputation as a Nazi propagandist. Steinhoff died in the last days of the war, when a plane taking him back to Prague — where he was filming a Hans Albers vehicle — was shot down southeast of Berlin by Russian anti-aircraft fire. Ziesemer; scg. Increasingly in the s, he flipped over the coin from drama to comedy, though in the hilarious Der Himmel auf Erden , Halloh — Caesar!
You see his relatives haunting the paintings of Otto Dix, George Grosz, and Max Beckmann: those square-faced Prussians, hooked on pleasure and capitalism, drinking the dregs of the night. Hence his paroxysms of embarrassment and disdain. Hence his desperate appearance in drag, dancing festooned with jewellery, quite the belle of the ball. From the raised finger to the arched eyebrow, his command of comic body language seems endless. For Lubitsch, he portrayed a louche and shady aristocrat in Madame Dubarry A director from , he concentrated on comedies, but also showed a talent for historical spectacle in Katharina die Grosse He made a smooth transition to sound films, exploiting music, dialogue, and sound to great comic effect.
Seemingly unaffected by the regime change, he continued to deploy urbane irony, most strikingly in Amphitryon , a comedy about the domestic life of the Greek gods, which was interpreted as poking fun at the new German state. Land der Liebe , his final German film, was a satirical operetta, released in an extensively cut version.
Contracted to M-G-M, his attempt to duplicate his European successes failed, and he returned to acting after New Wine , a non-vintage biography of Franz Schubert. In he started writing film scripts for Joe May. From the early s he dabbled in direction as well. When the Nazis took over in Germany he emigrated to the Netherlands and then to Vienna.